Structural design refers to the methodical inspection of the structures’ rigidity, strength, and stability. This investigation aims to create a structure that can resist all applied loads without failing during its expected life span. A structure plays a critical role in transmitting or supporting loads. When the actual affixed loads go beyond the structure design specifications or the structures are incorrectly fabricated/designed, the structures are likely to fail to deliver their intended functions, with even far-reaching consequences. As a result, you need to proceed with the structural analysis of your structure. In this enlightening post, we’ll cover four critical structural analyses and design issues that you should consider to minimize costly failures from happening.
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Issues To Consider During Structural Analysis And Design
A civil engineering structure should sustain loads of various types and possible load combinations applied to them during their expected life spans. As a result, it’s vital to estimate the accurate magnitudes of those loads during the structural analysis and design process.
Also, you should use research documents, research reports, local codes, and internationals to estimate the accurate magnitudes of the loads. In general, structural loads occur in four primary groups: impact loads, environmental loads, dead loads, and live loads.
1. Dead Loads
Dead loads refer to structural loads that feature constant magnitudes over time. For example, they include loads of fixtures (fixed to the structure permanently) and structural weight of beams, walls, roofs, columns, floors, plasters, and ceilings.
2. Live Loads
These include temporarily/movable loads fixed to the structure. For example, loads on a structure created by the impact, people, equipment storage, and furniture storage are excellent examples of live loads.
3. Impact Loads
These include loads from dropped weights, vibrating machinery, and moving vehicles.
4. Environmental Loads
These include rain loads, wind loads, snow loads, earthquake loads, earth pressures, and hydrostatic pressures.
Also, you can ensure a structure’s safety by determining the correct structural framing. Generally, you can use Building Information Modelling technology to determine the proper footing design, orientations, beam dimensions, slab thickness, and more.
BIM technology uses real-time information sharing to offer a practical design and communication method. With this valuable insight, you can plan, design, construct and manage the project smoothly.
Design Codes, Building Standards, And Permit Requirements
You should ensure that the structural designs comply with local/state/national design codes, building standards, and permit requirements during structural analysis and design.
The relevant design codes, building standards, and permit requirements to consider include:
- ACI 318: Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete
- ACI 530/530 1-13: Building Code Requirements and Specification for Masonry Structures
- National Design Specification® (NDS®) for Wood Construction
- AISC 303-10: Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges
- AISC 341: Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings
- ANSI/AISC 360-16: Specification for Structural Steel Buildings
- AISI S100-16: North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
- ASCE 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
- ASCE 37: Design Loads on Structures During Construction
- AWS D1.1: Structural Welding Code – Steel
- AWS D1.3: Structural Welding Code – Sheet Steel
- AWS D1.4: Structural Welding Code – Reinforcing Steel
- UFC 4-010-01: DoD Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings
- UFC 4-023-03: Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse
- International Building Code
- Metal Building Systems Manual
- NFPA 5000, Building Construction and Safety Code
- Design Manual for Composite Decks, Form Decks, and Roof Decks (No. 31)
- Diaphragm Design Manual Third Edition (DDM03)
- Catalog of Standard Specifications and Load Tables for Steel Joists and Joist Girders
After completing the analysis and design process, you also have to submit a structural markup that includes the budget, the schedule, and the design. In brief, this stage requires complete partnership efforts of all stakeholders to ensure every detail appears on the final schedule.
Final Thoughts on Structural Analysis
In short, there are four critical structural analysis and design factors you should consider. Therefore, by considering those issues, you’ll end up creating a well-engineered structure that can reduce the chances of costly failures. Note that structural analysis and design have a significant impact on construction projects. So, this methodical inspection helps to ensure the structure’s performance, stability, and safety.